Reading Passage 1
Alarming Rate Of Loss Of Tropical Rainforests
A. Adults and children are frequently confronted with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests. For example, one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes – about the duration of a normal classroom period. In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage, it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests – what and where they are, why they are important, what endangers them – independent of any formal tuition. It is also possible that some of these ideas will be mistaken. Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about ‘pure’, curriculum science. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification. These ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. Sometimes this information may be erroneous. It seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to re-express their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers.
B. Despite the extensive coverage in the popular media of the destruction of rainforests, little formal information is available about children’s ideas in this area. The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information, to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programmes in environmental studies in their schools.
C. The study surveys children’s scientific knowledge and attitudes to rainforests. Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions. The most frequent responses to the first question were descriptions which are self-evident from the term ‘rainforest’. Some children described them as damp, wet or hot. The second question concerned the geographical location of rainforests. The commonest responses were continents or countries: Africa (given by 43% of children), South America (30%), Brazil (25%). Some children also gave more general locations, such as being near the Equator.
D. Responses to question three concerned the importance of rainforests. The dominant idea, raised by 64% of the pupils, was that rainforests provide animals with habitats. Fewer students responded that rainforests provide plant habitats, and even fewer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. More girls (70%) than boys (60%) raised the idea of the rainforest as animal habitats.
E. Similarly, but at a lower level, more girls (13%) than boys (5%) said that rainforests provide human habitats. These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils’ views about the use and conservation of rainforests, in which girls were shown to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed views which seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life.
F. The fourth question concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly, more than half of the pupils (59%) identified that it is human activities which are destroying rainforests, some personalising the responsibility by the use of terms such as ‘we are’. About 18% of the pupils referred specifically to logging activity.
G. One misconception, expressed by some 10% of the pupils, was that acid rain is responsible for rainforest destruction; a similar proportion said that pollution is destroying rainforests. Here, children are confusing rainforest destruction with damage to the forests of Western Europe by these factors. While two-fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen, in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen, making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on Earth.
H. In answer to the final question about the importance of rainforest conservation, the majority of children simply said that we need rainforests to survive. Only a few of the pupils (6%) mentioned that rainforest destruction may contribute to global warming. This is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. Some children expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important.
I. The results of this study suggest that certain ideas predominate in the thinking of children about rainforests. Pupils’ responses indicate some misconceptions in the basic scientific knowledge of rainforests’ ecosystems such as their ideas about rainforests as habitats for animals, plants and humans and the relationship between climatic change and destruction of rainforests.
J. Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciated the complexity of causes of rainforest destruction. In other words, they gave no indication of an appreciation of either the range of ways in which rainforests are important or the complex social, economic and political factors which drive the activities which are destroying the rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appreciate, value and evaluate conflicting views. Environmental education offers an arena in which these skills can be developed, which is essential for these children as future decision-makers.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Sample ?
In boxes 1–8 on your answer sheet write:
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1 The plight of the rainforests has largely been ignored by the media.
2 Children only accept opinions on rainforests that they encounter in their classrooms.
3 It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the ‘pure’ science that they study at school.
4 The fact that children’s ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas mean that it is easier to change them.
5 The study involved asking children a number of yes/no questions such as ‘Are there any rainforests in Africa?’
6 Girls are more likely than boys to hold mistaken views about the rainforests’ destruction.
7 The study reported here follows on from a series of studies that have looked at children’s understanding of rainforests.
8 A second study has been planned to investigate primary school children’s ideas about rainforests.
The box below gives a list of responses A–P to the questionnaire discussed in Reading sample.
Answer the following questions by choosing the correct responses A–P.
Write your answers in boxes 9–13 on your answer sheet.
09. What was the children’s most frequent response when asked where the rainforests were?
10. What was the most common response to the question about the importance of the rainforests?
11. What did most children give as the reason for the loss of the rainforests?
12. Why did most children think it important for the rainforests to be protected?
13. Which of the responses is cited as unexpectedly uncommon, given the amount of time spent on the issue by the newspapers and television?
A. There is a complicated combination of reasons for the loss of the rainforests.
B. The rainforests are being destroyed by the same things that are destroying the forests of Western Europe.
C. Rainforests are located near the Equator.
D. Brazil is home to the rainforests.
E. Without rainforests some animals would have nowhere to live.
F. Rainforests are important habitats for a lot of plants.
G. People are responsible for the loss of the rainforests.
H. The rainforests are a source of oxygen.
I. Rainforests are of consequence for a number of different reasons.
J. As the rainforests are destroyed, the world gets warmer.
K. Without rainforests there would not be enough oxygen in the air.
L. There are people for whom the rainforests are home.
M. Rainforests are found in Africa.
N. Rainforests are not really important to human life.
O. The destruction of the rainforests is the direct result of logging activity.
P. Humans depend on the rainforests for their continuing existence.
Choose the correct letter A, B, C, D or E.
Write your answer in box 14 on your answer sheet.
Which of the following is the most suitable title for Reading sample Passage?
A. The development of a programme in environmental studies within a science curriculum
B. Children’s ideas about the rainforests and the implications for course design
C. The extent to which children have been misled by the media concerning the rainforests
D. How to collect, collate and describe the ideas of secondary school children
E. The importance of the rainforests and the reasons for their destruction
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Reading Passage 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Sustainable Growth At Didcot
The outline of a report by South Oxfordshire District Council
A. The UK Government’s South East Plan proposes additional housing growth in the town of Didcot, which has been a designated growth area since 1979. We in South Oxfordshire District Council consider that, although Didcot does have potential for further growth, such development should be sustainable, well-planned, and supported by adequate infrastructure and community services.
B. Recent experience in Didcot has demonstrated that large greenfield  developments cannot resource all the necessary infrastructure and low-cost housing requirements. The ensuing compromises create a legacy of local transport, infrastructure and community services deficits, with no obvious means of correction. We wish to ensure that there is greater recognition of the cost attached to housing growth, and that a means is found to resource the establishment of sustainable communities in growth areas.
C. Until the 1950s, the development of job opportunities in the railway industry, and in a large, military ordnance depot, was the spur to Didcot’s expansion. Development at that time was geared to providing homes for the railway and depot workers, with limited investment in shopping and other services for the local population. Didcot failed to develop Broadway as a compact town centre, and achieved only a strip of shops along one side of the main street hemmed in by low density housing and service trade uses.
D. From the 1970s, strategic planning policies directed significant new housing development to Didcot. Planners recognised Didcot’s potential, with rapid growth in local job opportunities and good rail connections for those choosing to work farther afield. However, the town is bisected by the east-west railway, and people living in Ladygrove, the urban extension to the north which has been built since the 1980s, felt, and still feel, cut off from the town and its community.
E. Population growth in the new housing areas failed to spark adequate private-sector investment in town centre uses, and the limited investment which did take place – Didcot Market Place development in 1982, for instance – did not succeed in delivering the number and range of town centre uses needed by the growing population. In 1990, public-sector finance was used to buy the land required for the Orchard Centre development, comprising a superstore, parking and a new street of stores running parallel to Broadway. The development took 13 years to complete.
F. The idea that, by obliging developers of new housing to contribute to the cost of infrastructure and service requirements, all the necessary finance could be raised, has proved unachievable. Substantial public finance was still needed to deliver major projects such as the new link road to the A34 on the outskirts of the town at Milton, the improved railway crossing at Marsh Bridge and new schools. Such projects were delayed due to difficulties in securing public finance. The same problem also held back the expansion of health and social services in the town.
G. In recent years, government policy, in particular, the requirement for developers that forty percent of the units in a new housing development should be low-cost homes, has had a major impact on the economics of such development, as it has limited the developers’ contribution to the costs of infrastructure. The planning authorities are facing difficult choices in prioritising the items of infrastructure which must be funded by development, and this, in turn, means that from now on public finance will need to provide a greater proportion of infrastructure project costs.
H. The Government’s Sustainable Communities Plan seeks a holistic approach to new urban development in which housing, employment, services and infrastructure of all kinds are carefully planned and delivered in a way which avoids the infrastructure deficits that have occurred in places like Didcot in the past. This report, therefore, is structured around the individual components of a sustainable community, and shows the baseline position for each component.
I. Didcot has been identified as one of the towns with which the Government is working to evaluate whether additional growth will strengthen the economic potential of the town, deliver the necessary infrastructure and improve environmental standards. A programme of work, including discussions with the local community about their aspirations for the town as well as other stakeholders, will be undertaken over the coming months, and will lead to the development of a strategic master plan. The challenge will be in optimising scarce resources to achieve maximum benefits for the town.
 land that has never previously been built on
Reading Passage 2 has 9 paragraphs, A-l.
Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-l in boxes 15-19 on your answer sheet.
15. the reason why inhabitants in one part of Didcot are isolated
16. a statement concerning future sources of investment
17. the identification of two major employers at Didcot
18. reference to groups who will be consulted about a new development plan
19. an account of how additional town centre facilities were previously funded
Look at the following places and the list of statements below.
Match each place with the correct statement, A-F.
Write the correct letter, A-F in boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet.
21. Market Place
22. Orchard Centre
23. Marsh Bridge
List of statements
A. It provided extra facilities for shopping and cars.
B. Its location took a long time to agree.
C. Its layout was unsuitable.
D. Its construction was held up due to funding problems.
E. It was privately funded.
F. It failed to get Council approval at first.
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
24. A certain proportion of houses in any new development now have to be of the ……………………. type.
25. The government is keen to ensure that adequate ……………………. will be provided for future housing developments.
26. The views of Didcot’s inhabitants and others will form the basis of a ……………………. for the town.
Reading Passage 3
You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 – 40.
A.D.D. – Missing Out On Learning
A. Study requires a student’s undivided attention. It is impossible to acquire a complex skill or absorb information about a subject in class unless one learns to concentrate without undue stress for long periods of time. Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (A.D.D.) are particularly deficient in this respect for reasons which are now known to be microbiological and not behavioral, as was once believed. Of course, being unable to concentrate, and incapable of pleasing the teacher and oneself in the process, quickly leads to despondence and low self-esteem. This will naturally induce behavioral problems. It is estimated that 3 – 5 % of all children suffer from Attention Deficit Disorder. There are three main types of Attention Deficit Disorder: A.D.D. without Hyperactivity, A.D.D. with Hyperactivity (A.D.H.D.), and Undifferentiated A.D.D.
The characteristics of a person with A.D.D. are as follows:
• has difficulty paying attention
• does not appear to listen
• is unable to carry out given instructions
• avoids or dislikes tasks which require sustained mental effort
• has difficulty with organization
• is easily distracted
• often loses things
• is forgetful in daily activities
B. Children with A.D.H.D. also exhibit excessive and inappropriate physical activity, such as constant fidgeting and running about the room. This boisterousness often interferes with the educational development of others. Undifferentiated A.D.D. sufferers exhibit some, but not all, of the symptoms of each category.
C. It is important to base remedial action on an accurate diagnosis. Since A.D.D. is a physiological disorder caused by some structural or chemically-based neurotransmitter problem in the nervous system, it responds especially well to certain psycho stimulant drugs, such as Ritalin. In use since 1953, the drug enhances the ability to structure and complete a thought without being overwhelmed by non-related and distracting thought processes.
D. Psychostimulants are the most widely used medications for persons with A.D.D. and A.D.H.D. Recent findings have validated the use of stimulant medications, which work in about 70 – 80% of A.D.H.D. children and adults (Wilens and Biederman, 1997). In fact, up to 90% of destructibility in A.D.D. sufferers can be removed by medication. The specific dose of medicine varies for each child, but such drugs are not without side effects, which include reduction in appetite, loss of weight, and problems with falling asleep.
E. Not all students who are inattentive in class have Attention Deficit Disorder. Many are simply unwilling to commit themselves to the task at hand. Others might have a specific learning disability (S.L.D.). However, those with A.D.D. have difficulty performing in school not usually because they have trouble learning 1 , but because of poor organization, inattention, compulsion and impulsiveness. This is brought about by an incompletely understood phenomenon, in which the individual is, perhaps, best described as ‘tuning out’ for short to long periods of time. The effect is analogous to the switching of channels on a television set. The difference is that an A.D.D. the sufferer is not ‘in charge of the remote control’. The child with A.D.D. is unavailable to learn – something else has involuntarily captured his or her whole attention.
F. It is commonly thought that A.D.D. only affects children, and that they grow out of the condition once they reach adolescence. It is now known that this is often not the case. Left undiagnosed or untreated, children with all forms of A.D.D. risk a lifetime of failure to relate effectively to others at home, school, college and at work. This brings significant emotional disturbances into play, and is very likely to negatively affect self-esteem. Fortunately, early identification of the problem, together with appropriate treatment, makes it possible for many victims to overcome the substantial obstacles that A.D.D. places in the way of successful learning.
1 approximately 15% of A.D.H.D. children do, however, have learning disabilities
Evaluations of Controversial Treatments for A.D.D.
|Alternative Treatments for A.D.D.||Evaluation|
You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 27-29.
Refer to Reading Passage 3 “A.D.D. – Missing Out On Learning”, and decide which of the answers best completes the following sentences. Write your answers in boxes 27 – 29 on your Answer Sheet. The first one has been done for you as an example.
Example: The number of main types of A.D.D. is:
27. Attention Deficit Disorder:
a) is a cause of behavioural problems
b) is very common in children
c) has difficulty paying attention
d) none of the above
28. Wilens and Biederman have shown that:
a) stimulant medications are useful
b) psychostimulants do not always work
c) hyperactive persons respond well to psychostimulants
d) all of the above
29. Children with A.D.D.:
a) have a specific learning disability
b) should not be given medication as a treatment
c) may be slightly affected by sugar intake
d) usually improve once they become teenagers
You are advised to spend about 10 minutes on Questions 30 – 37. The following is a summary of Reading Passage 3.
Complete each gap in the text by choosing 30 – 37 on your Answer Sheet.
Write your answers from boxes. Note that there are more choices in the box than gaps.
You will not need to use all the choices given, but you may use a word, or phrase more than once.
Attention Deficit Disorder is a neurobiological problem that affects 3 – 5% of all …..(Ex:). …… Symptoms include inattentiveness and having difficulty getting (30)………. , as well as easily becoming distracted. Sometimes, A.D.D. is accompanied by (31)………… In these cases, the sufferer exhibits excessive physical activity. Psychostimulant drugs can be given to A.D.D. sufferers to assist them with the (32)………. of desired thought processes, although they might cause (33)………… Current theory states that medication is the only (34)…………. that has a sound scientific basis. This action should only be taken after an accurate diagnosis is made. Children with A.D.D. do not necessarily have trouble learning; their problem is that they involuntarily (35)………… their attention elsewhere. It is not only (36)……….. that are affected by this condition. Failure to treat A.D.D. can lead to lifelong emotional and behavioral problems. Early diagnosis and treatment, however, are the key to (37)……….. overcoming learning difficulties associated with A.D.D.
Questions 38 – 40
You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 38 – 40.
Refer to Reading Passage 3, and decide which of the following pieces of advice is best suited for a child listed in the table below.
Write your answers in boxes 38 – 40 on your Answer Sheet.
A. current treatment ineffective – suggest increased dosage of Ritalin.
B. supplement diet with large amounts of vitamins and minerals.
C. probably not suffering from A.D.D. – suggest behavioral counseling.
D. bone manipulation to realign bones in the skull.
E. EEG Biofeedback to self-regulate the child’s behavior.
F. daily dose of Ritalin in place of expensive unproven treatment.
|CHILD 1||CHILD 2||CHILD 3|
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Reading Passage 1
6. NOT GIVEN
8. NOT GIVEN
Reading Passage 2
24. low cost
26. strategic master plan
Reading Passage 3
33. side effects
34. remedial action