Reading Passage 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
In or out?
A. British further education colleges did not traditionally have any concerns about student drop-out, because the origins of the sector were in vocational apprenticeship training for employers where the apprentices could net drop out without endangering their job. In the 70s, this sector began to expand into more general education courses, which were seen both as an alternative to school for 16-18-year-olds and a second chance for adults. The philosophy was mainly liberal with students regarded as adults who should not be heavily monitored, but rather free to make their own decisions; It was not uncommon to hear academic staff argue that attendance at classes was purely voluntary.
B. In the 80s, with an increased consciousness of equal opportunities, the focus of the further education colleges moved to widen participation, encouraging into colleges students from previously under-represented groups, particularly from ethnic minorities. This, in turn, led to a curriculum which was more representative of the new student body, For example, there were initiatives to ensure the incorporation of literature by black writers into A-level literature courses; history syllabuses were altered to move beyond a purely Eurocentric view of the world: and geography syllabuses began to look at the politics of maps.
C. A turning point came in 1991 with the publication of a report on completion rates by the government inspection body for education. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate for England and Wales, (HMI 1991). However, this report was based on the academic staff’s explanations of why students had left. It suggested that the vast majority left cither for personal reasons or because they had found employment and that only 10% left for reasons that could, In any way, be attributed to the college.
D. Meanwhile, Britain had been going through the Thatcherite revolution and, in parallel to the Reagan politics of the US, a key principle was the need to reduce taxation drastically. At this point (and to a large extent still), further and higher education colleges were almost entirely funded from the public purse, There had been many cuts in this funding through the 80s, but no one had really looked at value for money, However, in the early 90s, the Audit Commission with Office of Standards in Education (OFSTED) (the new version of HMI) turned the spotlight onto further education and published a seminal report, Unfinished Business (Audit Commission and OFSTED 1993) which showed that drop-out was happening on a significant scale and, crucially given the politics of the time, attributed a cost to the state of £500 million, arguing that this was a waste of public (i.e. taxpayers) money, To quote Yorke (1999), non-completion became political.
E. The Audit Commission report coincided with government moves to privatize the functions of the state as much as possible; and with the decision to remove further education from the control of local government and give it u quasi-dependent status, where colleges were governed by Independent boards of governors bidding to the state for funding to run educational provision, As part of this, a new series of principles for funding and bidding was developed JFEFC 1994) which incorporated severe financial penalties for student drop-out. In essence, the system is that almost all the state funding is attached to the individual student. There is funding for initial advice and guidance, on course delivery arid student achievement, but If the student drops out, the college loses that funding immediately, so that loss of students in the first term leads to an Immediate loss of college funding for the other two terms, Not surprisingly, this focused the concern of colleges immediately and sharply on the need to improve student retention rates.
F. Recently, therefore, there has been considerable effort to improve retention but, as Martinez (1995) pointed out, there was nobody of research on which to base strategies. An additional complexity was that colleges had been slow to computerise their student data and most colleges were in the position of not knowing what their retention rates were or any patterns involved. Where data did exist it was held separately by either administrative or academic staff with poor communication between these groups. Colleges, however, jumped into h number of strategies bused largely on experience, instinct and common sense and publication of these began. (Martinez 1996, Martinet 1997, Kenwright 1996, Kenwright 1997)
G. The main strategies tried are outlined In the literature as summarised by Martinez (1995). These include sporting activities around entry to ensure “Best Fit”, supporting activities including child [¡Eire, financial support and enrichment/learner support, connecting activities to strengthen the relationship between the college and the student, including mentoring and tutorials and activities to transform the student, Including raising of expectations and study/career development support and tutoring.
Use the information in the text to match each of the years listed (1-3) with one of the Key events ỉn the development of further education (i-vii).
Write the appropriate letters in Boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.
Note that there are more items listed under the key event than years, so you will not use all of them.
Key events in the development of further education
i. Severe penalties for drop-out are developed as part of college funding mechanisms
ii. Serious attempts are made to improve student support
iii. An Influential report showing that non-completion rates are significantly high is published
iv. The lack of a strategical basis is officially recognized
v. The HMI has created
vi. Data oil student completion rates for further education are published
vii. A minor report showing that non-completion is significantly high is published
Complete the sentences below.
Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage to fill each blank space.
Write your answers in the blank spaces next to 4-8 on your answer sheet.
4 Further education colleges in Britain were originally not worried about student drop-out, because students did not leave college for fear of_______________
5 According to the writer, the philosophy at further education colleges was___________
6 As people became more aware of equal opportunities, colleges encouraged students from underrepresented groups, as a move to
7 The HMI’s report foe used on_____________ completion rates, based on____ of reasons for students’ departure from college.
8 In the early 1990s, the political situation, both in Britain and the US, demanded a drastic__________.
Choose the correct answers A-D and write them next to 9-14 on your answer sheet”
9 The report Unfinished Business …
A pointed out the polities of the time
B gave 1500 mil 11 on to the state
C linked drop-out lo wasting money
D turned the spotlight
10 The new series of principles developed in 1994 by the PEPC
A gave money to each student
B was quasi-independent
C meant colleges had to turn their immediate attention to improving student retention rates
D was aimed fit improving teacher retention rates
11 Attempts to reduce the student drop-out rate were hindered, because …
A there was a lack of research data on which to base strategies
B colleges did not know what to do
C computers in colleges were slow
D colleges had no patterns
12 Further hindrances in reducing the student drop-out rate were
A collages slowness in computerising data and tint knowing their retention rates, nor what patterns of retention exited
B collage inertia and administrative incompetence
C computer or glitches and strikes, Which occurred at most colleges
D colleges not knowing their retention rates or where the patterns were
13 Colleges’ strategies to deal with the problem of low retention …
A brought administrative and academic staff together
B varied enormously
D was based on something other than data
14 The main strategies to improve retention included,…
A “best fit” supporting activities
B activities to support and transform the Student
C the raising of College expectations
D a summary by Martinez
Reading Passage 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-27, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
A not liar intelligence?
A. Emotional Intelligence as a theory was first brought to public attention by the book Emotional Intelligence, Why It Can Matter More Than IQ by Daniel Coleman, but the theory itself is, in fact, attributed to two Americans, John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey. What is emotional intelligence exactly? According to Coleman, Emotional Intelligence consists of five key elements. The first is knowing one’s own emotions: being able to recognise that one is emotional and having the ability to identify which emotion ls being experienced, even If it is not a particularly comfortable feeling to admit to, e.g. jealousy or envy.
B. Emotional awareness can then lead to managing one’s emotions, This Involves dealing with emotions, like jealousy, resentment, anger, etc., that one may have difficulty accepting by, perhaps, giving oneself comfort food, or doing nice things when one is feeling low. Many people do this instinctively by buying chocolate or treating themselves; others can wrap themselves in positive thoughts or “mother themselves”, There are, of course, ninny people who are incapable of doing this, and so need to be taught. The third area is self motivation. Our emotions can simultaneously empower and hinder us, so it is important to develop the ability to control them. Strategies can be learnt whereby emotions are set aside to be dealt with at a later date. For example, when dealing with the success or good fortune of others, it Is better not to suppress any “negative” emotion that arises. One just has to recognise it is there. And then one just needs to be extra careful when making decisions and not allow one’s emotions to cloud the issue, by letting them dictate how one functions with that person, The separation of logic and emotion is not easy when dealing with people,
C. As social beings, we need to be able to deal with other people which brings us to the next Item on Goleman’s list, namely: recognising emotions in other people. This means, in effect, having or developing “social radar”, i.e. learning to read the weather systems around individuals or groups of people. Obviously, loading on from this is the ability to handle a relationship, if we can recognise, understand and then deal with other people’s emotions, we can function better both socially and professionally. Not being tangible, emotions are difficult to analyse and quantify, compounded by the fact that each area. In the list above does not operate in isolation. Each of us has misread a friend’s or a colleague’s behaviour to us and other people. The classic example Is the shy person, categorised by some people as arrogant and distant and by others as lively and friendly and very personable. How can two different groups make a definitive analysis of someone that is so strikingly contradictory? And yet this happens daily in all our relationships – even to the point of misreading the behaviour of those close to us! In the work scenario, this can cost money. And so it makes economic sense for a business to be aware of it and develop strategies for employing people and dealing with their employees,
D. All common sense you might say. Goleman himself has even suggested that emotional intelligence is just a new way of describing competence; what some people might call savoir-faire or savior-vivre. Part of the problem here is that society or some parts of society have forgotten that these skills ever existed and have found the need to re-invent them. But the emergence of Emotional Intelligence as theory suggests that the family situations and other social interactions where social skills were honed in the past are fast disappearing so that people now sadly need to be re-skilled.
Choose one phrase (A-I) from the list of phrases to complete each key point below.
Write the appropriate letters (A-I) in Boxes 15-19 on your answer sheet.
The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of the points made by the writer, There are more phrases (A-I) than sentences, so you will not need to use them all.
You may use each phrase once only.
15 Knowing one’s emotions
16 One aspect of managing one’s emotions
18 The ability to recognise emotions in other people
19 Handling relationships
List of phrases
A empowers and hinders us
B means many people eat chocolate
C involves both recognition and Identification
D is intangible
E is achieved by learning to control emotions
F is the key to better social and professional functioning
G is particularly comfortable
H is like having a social radar
I is that some emotions are difficult to accept
Choose the appropriate letters A-D.
Write them next to 20-26 0n your answer sheet.
20 Emotional Intelligence as a theory …
A is attributed to Daniel Golem
B was unheard of until the 1970s
C is attributed, to Mayer and Salovey
D consists of in the least live key areas
21 One way of controlling emotions is to …
A hinder them
B suppress tile negative ones
C put theft in thy side to deal with later
D use both logic and emotion
22 As well as being intangible, the problem with emotions is that they
A are difficult
B are difficult to qualify
C does not operate in isolation
D are compounded
23 Employers need to …
A save money
B know about people’s emotions
C employ and deal with employees
D work scenario,
24 Goleman links Emotional Intelligence to …
D common sense
25 The fact that the Idea of Emotional Intelligence has emerged suggests that social interactions…
A happen In the family
B need to be re-skilled
C care becoming less frequent
D are honed
26 Misreading the behavior of others
A is most common wills those dose to us
B is always expensive
C is a classic example
D happens daily
Does the statement below agree with the information in Reading Passage 2? In Box 27,write:
YES, if the statement agrees with the information in the passage
NO, if the statement contradicts the information in the passage
NOT GIVEN, if there is no information about the statement in the passage
27 The author believes that the lack of Emotional Intelligence will lead to the disintegration of the family as a social unit.
Reading Passage 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Pronunciation and physiognomy
Imagine the scene: you are sitting on the tube anti on guts someone you instinctively feel Is American, To make sure you ask them the time, fend is light, but how did you know?
A. When we say someone “looks American”, we take into consideration dress, mannerism and physical appearance- However, since the Americans do not constitute one single race, what exactly is meant by “look”? In fact, one salient feature is a pronounced widening around the jaw, a well-documented phenomenon.
B. The writer Arthur Hue’s tier onto remarked that friends of his, whom he met thirty years after they emigrated to the United States, had acquired an “American physiognomy”, i.e. a broadened jaw, an appearance which is also prevalent In the indigenous population. An anthropologist friend of his attributed this to the increased use of the jaw musculature In American enunciation. This “change of countenance” in immigrants had already been observed by the historian M. Fishberg in 1910,
C. To paraphrase the philosopher Emerson, certain national, social and religious groups, such as ageing actors, long-term convicts and celibate priests, to give just n few examples, develop a distinguishing “look”, which is not easily defined, but readily recognised, Their way of life affects their facial expression and physical features, giving the mistaken impression that these traits are of hereditary or racial” origin. All the factors mentioned above contribute, as well as heredity, lint the question of appearance being affected by pronunciation, as in the ease of American immigrants (including those from other English speaking countries) over the course of many years, is of great interest and culls fur further study into the science of voice production. This can only benefit those working in the field of speech therapy, elocution and the pronunciation of foreign languages, and help the student from a purely physiological point of view, Naturally, the numerous psychological and socio-linguistic factors that inhibit most adult learners of foreign languages from acquiring a “good” pronunciation constitute a completely different and no less important Issue that requires separate investigation.
D. The pronunciation of the various forms of English around the world today is affected by the voice being “plated” in different parts of the mouth, We use DUI-speech organs in certain ways to produce specific sounds, and these muscles have to practice to learn new phonemes, Non-Americans should look In the mirror while repeating “I really never heard of poor reward for valor with full use of the USA retroflex hi phoneme, and note what happens to their jawbones after three or four repetitions. Imagine the effect of these movements on the jaw muscles after twenty years! This phoneme is one of the most noticeable features of US English and one that non-A merit and is always exaggerate when mimicking the accent, Likewise, standard British REL is often parodied, and its whine of superiority mocked to the point of turning the end of one’s nose up as much as possible. Not only does this enhance the “performance”, but also begs the question of whether this look is the origin of the expression “stuck up”?
E. On a Birmingham bus once, a friend pointed to a fellow passenger and said, “That man’s Brummie accent is written all over his face.” This was from someone who would not normally make crass generalisations. The interesting thing would be to establish whether thin lips and a tense, prominent chin arc a result of the way Midlands English is spoken, or its cause or a mixture of both. Similarly, in the case of Liverpool, one could ask whether the distinctive “Scouse” accent was a reason for or an effect of the frequency of high cheekbones in the local population.
F. When one “learns” another accent, as in the theatre, for example, voice coaches often resort to images to help their students acquire the distinctive sound of the target pronunciation. With “Scouse”, the mental aid employed is pushing your cheekbones up in a smile as high as they will go and imagining you’ve got a very slack mouth full of cotton wool. The sound seems to spring off the sides of your face – outwards and upwards. For a Belfast accent, one has to tighten the sides of the jaws until there is maximum tension, and speak opening the lips as little as possible. This gives rise to the well-known “Ulster jaw” phenomenon, Learning Australian involves imagining the ordeals of the first westerners transported to the other side of the world. When exposed to the merciless glare and unremitting heat of the southern sun, we instinctively screw up our eyes and grimace for protection.
G. Has this contributed to an Australian “look”, and affected the way “Aussies” speak English or vice versa? It is a curious chicken and egg conundrum, but perhaps the answer is ultimately irrelevant, Of course, other factors affect the way people look and sound, and I am not suggesting for one minute that all those who speak one form of a language or dialect have a set physiognomy because of their pronunciation patterns. But a large enough number do, and that alone is worth investigating. What is important, however, is establishing pronunciation as one of the factors that determine physiognomy, and gaining a deeper insight into the origins and nature of the sounds of speech. And of course, one wonders what “look” one’s own group has!
Write the appropriate letter in Boxes 28-30 on your answer sheet.
Note that there are more Observations than people, so you will not use all of them.
You can use each observation once only.
Use the information in the text to match the People listed (28-30) with the Observations (1-vii).
i. Americans use their jaw more to enunciate
ii. Immigrants acquire physiognomical features common among the Indigenous population
iii. Facial expression and physical features arc hereditary
iv. Lifestyle affects physiognomy
v. Americans have a broadened jaw
vi. The appearance of his friends had changed since they moved to the United States
vii. The change of countenance was unremarkable
Do the statements below agree with the Information in Rending Passage 3?
In Boxes 31-36, write;
YES, if the statement agrees with the information In the passage
NO, if the statement contradicts the information in the passage
NOT GIVEN, if there is no information about the statement in the passage
Example: Appearance is affected by pronunciation.
31 Further study into the science of voice production will cost considerable sums of money.
32 The psychological and socio-linguistic factors that make it difficult for adult learners of foreign languages to gain “good” pronunciation arc not as important as other factors.
33 Speech organs are muscles.
34 New phonemes are difficult to learn,
35 People often make fun of standard British HP,
36 Facial features contribute to the incomprehensibility of Midlands English.
Choose one phrase (A-I) from the list of phrases to complete each keypoint below.
Write the appropriate letters (A-I) in Boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of the points made by the writer.
There are more phrases (A-I) than sentences, so you will not need to use them all.
You may use each phrase once only.
37 Voice coaches
38 The Scouse
39 Whether the way we look affects the way we speak or the other way round
40 It is Important to prove that pronunciation
List of Phrases
A and be achieved by using a mental aid
B is irrelevant
C is worth investigating
D use Images to assist students with the desired pronunciation
E is a chicken and egg conundrum
F get the target
G can affect the appearance
H is not as easy as a Belfast one
I makes you smile
Reading Passage 1
|1.||vi, The answer is in paragraph 3. The answer is not v, because there is no mention of when the HMI was created.|
|2.||The answer is in the fourth paragraph, Note that vii is not possible, because the passage says the report was seminal, i.e. important/influential.|
|3.||The answer is In paragraph 4.|
|4.||endangering their Job. The answer is in the first paragraph. The sentence is a paraphrase of the first sentence of the text.|
|5.||[mainly] liberal. The answer is at the beginning of the last sentence of the first paragraph.|
|6.||widen/widening participation. The answer is In the second paragraph. Note that the gerund can be changed to the infinitive.|
|7.||academic staff’s explanation*. The answer is in the second sentence of the third paragraph.|
|8.||reduction of taxes/tax reduction. The answer is in the first sentence of the fourth paragraph, The verb phrase in the passage needs to be changed Into a noun phrase to fit the sentence given.|
|9.||The answer is in the fourth paragraph. A is incorrect, as this was not what the report did. B is not right, as the report did not give them money, and D is incomplete.|
|10.||C. The answer Is In paragraph 4, A is not right, because the money is not given to the student (it Is given to the college for the student). B. is incorrect, because it was a further education that became quasi-independent, not the principles, and D is not possible, as the text does not say this.|
|11.||A. The answer can be found in the first sentence of the fifth paragraph. The phrase to reduce the student drop-out rate is a paraphrase of to improve retention. It is important to look out for ways In which sections of the text arc paraphrased In the various types of questions. B, C and D are incorrect because all three contain phrases lifted from the text, but used here in the wrong context.|
|12.||A. The answer can be found in the second sentence of the fifth paragraph. Note that the sentence gives three complexities, which hinder the reducing of dropout rates. B is not mentioned in the text, nor Is C. The first element of D Is correct, but the second one is nonsensical,|
|13.||D. The answer is in the second half of the fifth paragraph. The last sentence answers, i.e. something other than data. A and B arc not stated, and C Is incomplete.|
|14.||B. The answer is In the final paragraph, and is a summary of the examples given. A is a phrase lifted from the text and Is part of two ideas – note the comma in the text. C is incorrect because the passage refers to raising the students’ expectations, not those of the college. D is not correct, because Martinez outlined the strategies, so Martinez’s summary included the strategies, and not the other way round.|
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Reading Passage 2
|15.||C. The answer is in the first paragraph. G is incorrect because it is the opposite of what the text says.|
|16.||I. The answer is in paragraph 2, in the second sentence. B. is incorrect because it is not mentioned as an aspect of management of one’s emotions but as a means of managing them.|
|17.||E. The answer can be found in the second part of paragraph 2, and is a paraphrase of the sixth sentence. A is incorrect, as it is our emotions that arc said to empower and hinder us.|
|18.||H. The answer is at the start of the third paragraph.|
|19.||F. The answer is in the fourth sentence of paragraph D is incorrect because it is emotions that arc said to be not tangible, not handling relationships. It is important to be very wary of words or phrases that arc lifted directly from the text. They are often put in the wrong context.|
|20.||C. The answer is in the first paragraph, in the latter half of the first sentence. Alternative D is not possible, because It says at least 5, while the text says 5.|
|21.||C. The answer can be found in paragraph A Is not possible, as the text advises against suppressing or hindering emotions. The same applies to B. D does not make sense.|
|22.||C. The answer is in the fifth sentence of the third paragraph, A Is incorrect, because the text does not say this, and It Is incomplete. B. is incorrect because the text says quantify and the exercise D is not the right answer, because it is not complete and Is nonsense.|
|23.||B. The answer is in the third paragraph, in the second sentence from the end. A is not stated. B. is incorrect because the text says … can cost money …i.e. not always. C is a phrase from the text but is not used in the right context here.|
|24.||A. The answer can be found in the last sentence of the third paragraph. Alternative B is not mentioned In the text and the words included In C appear in the text, but do not fit here. D Is grammatically Incorrect.|
|25.||A. The answer is in the second sentence of the penultimate paragraph. The other alternatives arc obviously wrong|
|26.||C. The answer is in the last paragraph, in the last sentence, becoming less frequent is a paraphrase of fast disappearing. A is untrue because the text does not say this. B. is incorrect, because it is people who need to be re-skilled, and D does not make sense.|
|27.||Not Given. The answer can be found in the last paragraph. The author says it is sad that people need to be re-skilled, but does not mention whether the lack of Emotional Intelligence will lead to anything.|
Reading Passage 3
|28.||vi. The answer is in the third paragraph in the first sentence, i. is incorrect because it was an anthropologist friend of Koestler who said this, ii. is not correct, because Koestler was talking about his friends rather than Immigrants In general; and v is not stated as a general principle.|
|29.||ii. The answer is in paragraph 3, in the last sentence, vi. is incorrect, because Plshberg was talking about immigrants in general, not his friends.|
|30.||iv. The answer can be found In the fourth paragraph, In the second sentence. iii. Is incorrect, because Emerson says this is a mistaken impression.|
|31.||Not Given. The text does not mention anything about this statement.|
|32.||No. The answer can be found in paragraph 4, in the last sentence: a completely different and no less important issue, which means, in effect, equally Important.|
|33.||Yes. The answer is In the second sentence of paragraph 5, The word these refer back to speech organs.|
|34.||Not Given. The answer is in the same place as question 33. The passage says that practice is needed to learn new phonemes, but does not mention whether or not they are difficult to learn.|
|35.||Yes. The answer is at the end of paragraph 5. The words parody and mock are synonyms to make fun of.|
|36.||Not Given. The text does not mention anything about this statement.|
|37.||D. The answer is in paragraph 7 and is a paraphrase to help their students acquire the distinctive sound of the target pronunciation.F is Incorrect, as it is incomplete.|
|38.||A. This answer can also be found In the seventh paragraph. A mental aid is said to be employee used. i. is incorrect, because of the cause and effect arc the wrong way round. H is not correct, because there is no mention of which of the two accents is easier.|
|39.||E. The answer is in the first part of the last paragraph. B. is Incorrect because It is the answer to the question that is said to be irrelevant.|
|40.||G. The answer Is in the second part of the last paragraph. C is Incorrect because It Is not pronunciation that Is worth Investigating, but the link between pronunciation and physiognomy.|