Practice Test 32

Reading Passage 1

You should spend

How to run a…

Publisher and author David Harvey on what makes a good management book.

A. Prior to the Second World War, all the management books that were ever written could be comfortably stacked on a couple of shelves. Today, you would need a sizeable library, with plenty of room for expansion to house them. The last few decades have seen the stream of new titles swell into a flood. In 1975, 771 business books were published. By 2000, the total for the year had risen to 3,203, and the trend continues.

B. The growth in publishing activity has followed the rise and rise of management to the point where it constitutes a mini-industry in its own right. In the USA alone, the book market is worth over $1 billion. Management consultancies, professional bodies and business schools were part of this new phenomenon, all sharing at least one common need: to get into print. Nor were they the only aspiring authors. Inside stories by and about business leaders balanced the more straight-laced textbooks by academics. How-to books by practising managers and business writers appeared on everything from making a presentation to developing a business strategy. With this upsurge in output, it is not really surprising that the quality is uneven.

C. Few people are probably in a better position to evaluate the management canon than Carol Kennedy, a business journalist and author of Guide to the Management Gurus, an overview of the world’s most influential management thinkers and their works. She is also the books editor of The Director. Of course, it is normally the best of the bunch that are reviewed in the pages of The Director. But from time to time, Kennedy is moved to use The Director’s precious column inches to warn readers off certain books. Her recent review of The Leader’s Edge summed up her irritation with authors who over-promise and under-deliver. The banality of the treatment of core competencies for leaders, including the ‘competency of paying attention’, was a conceit too far in the context of a leaden text. ‘Somewhere in this book,’ she wrote, there may be an idea worth reading and taking note of, but my own competency of paying attention ran out on page 31.’ Her opinion of a good proportion of the other books that never make it to the review pages is even terser.‘Unreadable’ is her verdict.

D. Simon Caulkin, contributing editor of the Observer’s management page and former editor of Management Today have formed a similar opinion. A lot is pretty depressing, unimpressive stuff.’ Caulkin is philosophical about the inevitability of finding so much dross. Business books, he says, ‘range from total drivel to the ambitious stuff. Although the confusing thing is that the really ambitious stuff can sometimes be drivel.’ Which leaves the question open as to why the subject of management is such a literary wasteland. There are some possible explanations.

E. Despite the attempts of Frederick Taylor, the early twentieth-century founder of scientific management, to establish a solid, rule-based foundation for the practice, management has come to be seen as just as much an art as a science. Once psychologists like Abraham Maslow, behaviouralists and social anthropologists persuaded business to look at management from a human perspective, the topic became more multi­dimensional and complex. Add to that the requirement for management to reflect the changing demands of the times, the impact of information technology and other factors, and it is easy to understand why management is in a permanent state of confusion. There is a constant requirement for reinterpretation, innovation and creative thinking: Caulkin’s ambitious stuff. For their part, publishers continue to dream about finding the next big management idea, a topic given an airing in Kennedy’s book. The Next Big Idea.

F. Indirectly, it tracks one of the phenomena of the past 20 years or so: the management blockbusters which work wonders for publishers’ profits and transform authors’ careers. Peters and Waterman’s In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies achieved spectacular success. So did Michael Hammer and James Champy’s book. Re-engineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. Yet the early euphoria with which such books are greeted tends to wear off as the basis for the claims starts to look less than solid. In the case of In Search of Excellence, it was the rapid reversal of fortunes that turned several of the exemplar companies into basket cases. For Hammer’s and Champy’s readers, disillusion dawned with the realisation that their slash-and-burn prescription for reviving corporate fortunes caused more problems than it solved.

G. Yet one of the virtues of these books is that they could be understood. There is a whole class of management texts that fail this basic test.‘Some management books are stuffed with jargon,’ says Kennedy.‘Consultants are among the worst offenders.’ She believes there is a simple reason for this flight from plain English.’ They all use this jargon because they can’t think clearly. It disguises the paucity of thought.’

H. By contrast, the management thinkers who have stood the test of time articulate their ideas in plain English. Peter Drucker, widely regarded as the doyen of management thinkers, has written a steady stream of influential books over half a century. ‘Drucker writes beautiful, dear prose.’ says Kennedy, ‘and his thoughts come through.’ He is among the handful of writers whose work, she believes, transcends the specific interests of the management community. Caulkin also agrees that Drucker reaches out to a wider readership. ‘What you get is a sense of the larger cultural background,’ he says.‘That’s what you miss in so much management writing.’ Charles Handy, perhaps the most successful UK business writer to command an international audience, is another rare example of a writer with a message for the wider world.

Questions 1-2

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers next to 1 and 2 on your answer sheet.

1 What does the writer say about the increase in the number of management books published?

A. It took the publishing industry by surprise.

B. It is likely to continue.

C. It has produced more profit than in other areas of publishing.

D. It could have been foreseen.

2 What does the writer say about the genre of management books?

A. It includes some books that cover topics of little relevance to anyone.

B. It contains a greater proportion of practical than theoretical books.

C. All sorts of people have felt that they should be represented in it.

D. The best books in the genre are written by business people.

Questions 3-7

Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 3-7 on your answer sheet.

3 reasons for the deserved success of some books

4 reasons why managers feel the need for advice

5 a belief that management books are highly likely to be very poor

6 a reference to books nor considered worth reviewing

7 an example of a group of people who write particularly poor books

Questions 8-13

Look at the statements (Questions 8-13) and the list of books below.

Match each statement with the book it relates to.

Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

8 It examines the success of books in the genre.

9 Statements made in it were later proved incorrect.

10 It fails to live up to claims made about it.

11 The advice given in it is seen to be actually harmful.

12 It examines the theories of those who have developed management thinking

13 It states die obviously in an unappealing way.

List of Books

A Guide to the Management Gurus

B The Leader’s Edge

C The Next Big Idea

D In Search of Excellence

E Re-engineering the Corporation

Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2.

Reading Passage 2 has five paragraphs A-E.

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number i—x in boxes 14—18 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings
i A strange combination
ii An overall requirement
iii A controversial decision
iv A strong contrast
V A special set-up
vi A promising beginning
vii A shift in attitudes
viii A strongly held belief
ix A change of plan
X A simple choice

14 Paragraph A

15 Paragraph B

16 Paragraph C

17 Paragraph D

18 Paragraph E

Stadium Australia

A. You might ask, why be concerned about the architecture of a stadium? Surely, as Long as die action is entertaining and the building is safe and reasonably comfortable, why should the aesthetics matter’ This one question has dominated my professional life, and its answer is one 1 find myself continually rehearsing. If one accepts that sporting endeavour is as important an outlet for human expression as, say, the theatre or cinema, fine art or music, why shouldn’t the buildings in which we celebrate this outlet he as grand and as inspirational as those we would expect, and demand, in those other areas of cultural life? Indeed, one could argue that because stadiums are, in many instances, far more popular than theatres or art galleries, we should actually devote more, and nor less, attention to their form. Stadiums have frequently been referred to as ‘cathedrals’. Football has often been dubbed ‘the opera of the people’. What better way, therefore, to raise the general public’s awareness and appreciation of quality design than to offer them the very’ best buildings in the one area of life that seems to touch the most? Could it even be drat better stadiums might just make tor better citizens?

B. But then maybe, as my detractors have labelled me in the past, 1 am a snob. Maybe I should just accept that sport, and its associated accoutrements and products, is an essentially tacky and ephemeral business, while stadium design is all too often driven by pragmatists and penny-pinchers. Certainly, when 1 first started writing about stadium architecture, one of the first and most uncomfortable truths 1 had to confront was that some of the most popular stadiums in the world were also amongst the least attractive or innovative in architectural terms. ‘Worthy and predictable’ has usually won more votes than ’daring and different’. Old Trafford football ground in Manchester, the Yankee Stadium in New York, Ellis Park in Johannesburg. The list is long and is not intended to suggest that these are necessarily poor buildings. Rather, that each has derived its reputation more from the events that it has staged, from its associations, than from the actual form it takes. Equally, those stadiums whose forms have been revered – such as the Maracana in Rio, oi the San Siro in Milan – have turned out to be rather poorly designed in several respects, once one analysis them not as icons but as functioning ‘public assembly facilities’ (to use the current jargon). Finding the balance between beauty and practicality has never been easy.

C. Homebush Bay was the site of the main Olympic Games complex for the Sydney Olympics of 2000. To put it politely, I am no great admirer of the Olympics as an event, or, rather, of the insane pressures its past bidding procedures have placed upon candidate cities. Nor, as a spectator, do I much enjoy the bloated Games programme and the consequent demands this places upon the designers of stadiums. Yet in my calmer moments, it would be churlish to deny that, if approached sensibly and imaginatively, the opportunity to stage the Games can yield enormous benefits in the long term (as well they should, considering the expenditure involved), if not (or sport then at least for the cause of urban regeneration. Following in Barcelona’s footsteps, Sydney undoubtedly set about its urban regeneration in a wholly impressive way. To an outsider, the 760-hectare sire at Homebush Bay, once the home of an abattoir, a racecourse, a brickworks and light industrial units, seemed miles from anywhere – it was actually fifteen kilometres from the centre of Sydney and pretty much in the heart of the city’s extensive conurbation. Some £1.3 billion worth of construction and reclamation was commissioned, all of it, crucially, with an eye to post- Olympic usage- Strict guidelines, studiously monitored by Greenpeace, ensured that the 2000 games would be the most environmentally friendly ever. What’s more, much of the work was good-looking, distinctive and lively. ‘That’s a reflection of the Australian spirit,’ I was told.

D. At the centre of Homebush lay the main venue for the Olympics, Stadium Australia. It was funded by means of a BOOT (Budd, Own, Operate and Transfer) contract, which meant that the Stadium Australia consortium, led by the contractors Multiplex and the financiers Hambros, bore the bulk of the construction costs, in return for which it was allowed to operate the facility for thirty years, and thus, it hopes, recoups its outlay, before handing the whole building over to the New South Wales government in the year 2030.

E. Stadium Australia was the most environmentally friendly Olympic stadium ever built. Every single product and material used had to meet strict guidelines, even if it turned out to the more expensive. All the timber was either recycled or derived from renewable sources. In order to reduce energy’ costs, the design allowed for natural lighting in as many public areas as possible, supplemented by solar-powered units. Rainwater collected from the roof ran off into storage- ranks, where it could be tapped for pitch irrigation. The stormwater run-off was collected for toilet flushing. Wherever possible, passive ventilation was used instead of mechanical air- conditioning. Even the steel and concrete from the two end stands due to be demolished at the end of the Olympics was to be recycled. Furthermore, no private cars were allowed on the Homebush site. Instead, every spectator was to arrive by public transport, and quite right too. If ever there was a stadium to persuade a sceptic like me that the Olympic Games do, after all, have a useful function in at least setting design and planning trends, this was the one. I was, and still am, I freely confess, quite knocked out by Stadium Australia.

Questions 19-22

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet unite

TRUE, if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE, if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN, if there is no information on this

19 The public has been demanding a better quality of stadium design.

20 It is possible that stadium design has an effect on people’s behaviour in life in


21 Some stadiums have come in for a lot more criticism than others.

22 Designers of previous Olympic stadiums could easily have produced far better designs.

Question 23-26

Label the diagram below

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the reading passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.






Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on question 27-40 which are base on Reading passage 3

A Theory of Shopping

A. For a one-year period, I attempted to conduct an ethnography of shopping on and around a street in North London. This was carried out in association with Alison Clarke. I say ‘attempted’ because, given the absence of community and the intensely private nature of London households, this could not be an ethnography in the conventional sense. Nevertheless, through conversation, being present in the home and accompanying householders during their shopping, I tried to reach an understanding of the nature of shopping through greater or lesser exposure to 76 households.

B. My part of the ethnography concentrated upon shopping itself. Alison Clarke has since been working with the same households, but focusing upon other forms of provisioning such as the use of catalogues (see Clarke 1997). We generally first met these households together, but most of the material that is used within this particular essay derived from my own subsequent fieldwork. Following the completion of this essay, and a study of some related shopping centres, we hope to write a more general ethnography of provisioning. This will also examine other issues, such as the nature of community and the implications for retail and for the wider political economy. None of this, however, forms part of the present essay, which is primarily concerned with establishing the cosmological foundations of shopping.

C. To state that a household has been included within the study is to gloss over a wide diversity of degrees of involvement. The minimum requirement is simply that a householder has agreed to be interviewed about their shopping, which would include the local shopping parade, shopping centres and supermarkets. At the other extreme are families that we have come to know well during the course of the year. The interaction would include formal interviews, and a less formal presence within their homes, usually with a cup of tea. It also meant accompanying them on one or several ‘events’, which might comprise shopping trips or participation in activities associated with the area of Clarke’s study, such as the meeting of a group supplying products for the home.

D. In analysing and writing up the experience of an ethnography of shopping in North London, I am led in two opposed directions. The tradition of anthropological relativism leads to an emphasis upon difference, and there are many ways in which shopping can help us elucidate differences. For example, there are differences in the experience of shopping based on gender, age, ethnicity and class. There are also differences based on the various genres of the shopping experience, from a mall to a corner shop. By contrast, there is the tradition of anthropological generalisation about ‘peoples’ and comparative theory. This leads to the question as to whether there are any fundamental aspects of shopping which suggest a robust normativity that comes through the research and is not entirely dissipated by relativism. In this essay, I want to emphasize the latter approach and argue that if not all, then most acts of shopping on this street exhibit a normative form which needs to be addressed. In the later discussion of the discourse of shopping, I will defend the possibility that such a heterogeneous group of households could be fairly represented by a series of homogenous cultural practices.

E. The theory that I will propose is certainly at odds with most of the literature on this topic. My premise, unlike that of most studies of consumption, whether they arise from economists, business studies or cultural studies, is that for most households in this street the act of shopping was hardly ever directed towards the person who was doing the shopping. Shopping is therefore not best understood as an individualistic or individualising act related to the subjectivity of the shopper. Rather, the act of buying goods is mainly directed at two forms of ‘otherness’. The first of these expresses a relationship between the shopper and a particular another individual such as a child or partner, either present in the household, desired or imagined. The second of these is a relationship to a more general goal which transcends any immediate utility and is best understood as cosmological in that it takes the form of neither subject nor object but of the values to which people wish to dedicate themselves.

F. It never occurred to me at any stage when carrying out the ethnography that I should consider the topic of sacrifice as relevant to this research. In no sense then could the ethnography be regarded as a testing of the ideas presented here. The Literature that seemed most relevant in the initial analysis of the London material was that on thrift discussed in chapter 3. The crucial element in opening up the potential of sacrifice for understanding shopping came through reading Bataille. Bataille, however, was merely the catalyst, since I will argue that it is the classic works on sacrifice and, in particular, the foundation to its modern study by Hubert and Mauss (1964) that has become the primary grounds for my interpretation. It is important, however, when reading the following account to note that when I use the word ‘sacrifice’, I only rarely refer to the colloquial sense of the term as used in the concept of the ‘self-sacrificial’ housewife. Mostly the allusion is to this Literature on ancient sacrifice and the detailed analysis of the complex ritual sequence involved in the traditional sacrifice. The metaphorical use of the term may have its place within the subsequent discussion but this is secondary to an argument at the level of structure.

Questions 27-29

Choose THREE letters A-F.

Write your answers in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet.

Which THREE of the following are problems the writer encountered when conducting his study?

A uncertainty as to what the focus of the study should he

B the difficulty of finding enough households to make the study worthwhile

C the diverse nature of the population of the area

D the reluctance of people to share information about their personal habits

E the fact that he was unable to study some people’s habits as much as others

F people dropping out of the study after initially agreeing to take part




Questions 30-37

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 30-37 on your answer sheet write

YES, if the statement agrees with the news of the writer

NO, if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOT GIVEN, if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

30 Anthropological relativism is more widely applied than anthropological


31 Shopping lends itself to analysis based on anthropological relativism.

32 Generalisations about shopping are possible.

33 Tire conclusions drawn from this study will confirm some of the findings of other research.

34 Shopping should be regarded as a basically unselfish activity.

35 People sometimes analyze their own motives when they are shopping.

36 The actual goods bought are the primary concern in the activity of shopping.

37 It was possible to predict the outcome of the study before embarking on it.

Questions 38-40

Complete the sentences below with words taken from Reading Passage 3.

Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Write your answer in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

38 The subject of written research the writer first thought was directly connected with his study was ………………………………………..

39 The research the writer has been most inspired by was carried out by…………………………….

40 The writer mostly does not use the meaning of ‘sacrifice’ that he regards as……………………….


[restrict paid=true]

Reading Passage 1

Question 1-13

1. B

Note Paragraph A: The fact that you would need ‘plenty of room for expansion’ in your library of management books means that the increase will continue and many more books will be produced. Also, ‘the trend continues’ – the increase is still happening.

Option A {paragraph B) is incorrect. The number of management books has grown so much that it has created its own ‘mini-industry’, but the writer does not say that the growth surprised people in the industry. Option C (paragraph B) is incorrect. The writer says how much money is made from management books but does not say that this figure is higher than the amount made from other kinds of book. Option D (paragraph A) is incorrect. The writer talks about the period during which the growth has happened, but does not say that it was possible in the past to predict that this growth would happen.

2. C

Note Paragraph B: The writer lists all kinds of people who have produced management books. These people feel a ‘need to get into print’ or were ‘aspiring authors’, which means they wanted to write the books, rather than that someone else asked them to do so.

Option A (paragraph B) is incorrect. The writer says that all sorts of books have been written and that ‘the quality is uneven’ (some are better than others! but does not say that the content of any of them is completely irrelevant. Option B (paragraph B) is incorrect. It’s likely that the books by business leaders are more practical and the books by academics more theoretical, but the writer does not say that there are more of one kind than another. Option D (paragraph B) is incorrect. The writer says that some books are better than others, but does not say which ones are better than others.

3. H

Note Drucker’s and Handy’s books are said to deserve their success because they are well-written, clear and relevant to a wide range of people.

4. E

Note ‘Add to that …’. The writer lists here reasons why managers are ‘in a permanent state of confusion’ and need advice on management.

5. D

Note We are told that Caulkin ‘is philosophical about the inevitability of finding so much dross’. He is not surprised that it is certain that most management books are rubbish.

6. C

Note the last sentence: Some books never make it to the review pages’ are not considered worth reviewing) because they are ‘unreadable’.

7. G

Note Kennedy says that consultants ‘are among the worst offenders’. They are a group of people who are particularly guilty of writing books full of jargon that cannot be understood.

8. C

Note Paragraph E, last sentence and paragraph F, 1″ sentence: This book is about publishers’ desire to find ‘the next big management idea’, which will result in very high book sales. It ‘tracks’ (examines the progress of) ‘blockbusters’ (books that have sold in enormous quantities) in the management genre over the past 20 years, making big profits for publishers and authors. The Next Big Idea, therefore, looks at management books that have been very successful.

9. D

Note Paragraph F: This book made claims that ‘started to look less than solid’ (began to appear not to be based on fact) because some of the companies used in it as examples of good companies suffered a rapid ‘reversal of fortune’ (quickly changed from being successful to being unsuccessful) and became ‘basket cases’ (in a hopeless situation).

10. B

Note Paragraph C: This book is said to ‘over-promise’ and ‘under-deliver’, which means that the writer of it makes claims about how good it is, but the book itself does not fulfil the promises made and does not contain what it is said to contain.

11. E

Note Paragraph F, last sentence: This book suggested a certain way of improving a company’s position, but people who followed this advice realised that it ’caused more problems than it solved’.

12. A

Note Paragraph C, T’ sentence: This book provides an ‘overview’ (a general look) at people whose ideas and books have been the most influential.

13. B

Note Paragraph C: There is a reference to the ‘banality’ (stating of things that are obvious and therefore not worth saying) of this book, and the fact that the writing is ‘leaden’ (very dull), with the result that Kennedy had completely lost interest in it after 31 pages.

Reading Passage 2

Questions 14-26

14. viii

Note The whole paragraph consists of the writer’s argument that the architecture of a stadium is important. Throughout the first paragraph, he gives reasons in support of his strongly held belief that the architecture of stadiums is just as important as the architecture of other buildings because the sport itself Is important in people’s lives.

15. iv

Note In most of this paragraph, the writer contrasts stadiums that are popular with stadiums that are considered attractive. The most popular stadiums are not, in his view, attractive ones, and the ones that are considered attractive are also said not to be very good from a practical point of view.

16. vi

Note In this paragraph, the writer says that Sydney ‘set about’ (started) its programme of urban regeneration ‘in a wholly impressive way’ when it was preparing to stage the Olympics. His main point in the paragraph is that, although he does not normally like the buildings produced for Olympic Games, staging the games can be good for ‘urban regeneration’, – in Sydney the work that was carried out at the beginning of the process of getting ready for the Games (listed in the 2nd half of the paragraph) was very good and suggested that the outcome would be a good one.

17. v

Note This paragraph describes the special arrangement for the funding and ownership of Stadium Australia. That it was a special arrangement is indicated by the fact that it had a special name {‘BOOT’).

18. ii

Note This paragraph mainly describes the ways in which various aspects of the stadium met the general requirement of being environmentally friendly.


Note Paragraph A: ‘What better way The writer is saying that the public would be more aware of and appreciate ‘quality design’ if sports stadiums were examples of good design. His point throughout paragraph A is that people expect buildings in which cultural events take place to be grand’ and ‘inspirational’ (magnificent and exciting) and that stadiums should also be like that. However, he does not say whether or not the public complains about the quality of the design of stadiums.

20. TRUE

Note Paragraph A, last sentence: The writer says that it’s possible that ‘better stadiums might make for’ (help to create) ‘better citizens’. By this, he means that they might encourage people to behave better as members of society.


Note Paragraph B: The writer talks about different opinions of various stadiums, saying that what people think of some stadiums is connected more with the events that happen there than with the building itself, and also saying that some stadiums are rather poorly designed’. However, he does not compare any stadiums in terms of the amount of criticism they have received.


Note Paragraph C: ‘Nor, as a spectator The writer says that ‘the bloated Games programme’ places certain demands on stadium designers. He means that designers are forced to produce certain designs because of the large number of events that have to be staged in the Olympics. They are therefore not free to choose what they might consider being good designs, and so it is not their fault that the designs have not been better.

23. natural lighting

Note ‘In order to reduce … ’. The design made it possible to use this ‘in as many public areas as possible’.

24. mechanical air-conditioning
Note ‘Wherever possible … ‘.
25. stormwater
Note This ran off the roof and into storage tanks and was then used in toilets.
26. pitch irrigation

Note This was collected separately from stormwater, ran off the roof and into storage tanks, and was then used on the playing area.

Reading Passage 3

Questions 27-40

27. -29. C/D/E (in any order)

Note Option C: 1st paragraph.’ I say “attempted” …’. The writer refers to the ‘absence of community’, which means that the people could not be considered a single group with much in common. They were all different from each other and lived separate lives.

Option D: 1st paragraph, same sentence. The writer refers to the ‘intensely private nature of London households’, which means that people did not want to give private information on their personal lives.

Option E: 3rd paragraph, 1 sentence. The writer says that he has had to ‘gloss over’ the fact that (avoid drawing attention to the unfortunate fact that) the amount of his involvement differed greatly with different households. Some he only talked to about their shopping, and some he visited at home and accompanied when they went shopping. He would clearly have preferred to have maximum involvement with all the households, but he was not able to do so.

Option A is not a possible answer. 1st and 2nd paragraphs; He says that he aimed to carry out an ethnography (a kind of study) of shopping in a certain place and that his part would focus on ‘shopping itself’. He does not say that he was ever not sure what the study should be about.

Option B is not a possible answer. 1st paragraph: He found 76 households, but he does not say what number he tried to find. He was not able to get very involved with some of them, but he does not say he found it hard to get enough people willing to take part in his study.

Option F is not a possible answer. 3rd paragraph: He was more involved with some people than with others, but he does not say that some people agreed to take part and then changed their minds.


Note 4th paragraph: The writer describes both traditions and says that he intends to ’emphasize the latter’ (anthropological generalisation), but he does not say whether one Is more generally used than the other.

31. YES

Note 4th paragraph, last part: The writer says that he intends to use anthropological generalisation because of almost all of the acts of shopping in his study ‘exhibit a normative form’. This is clearly something which he feels makes anthropological generalisation appropriate.

32. YES

Note 4 paragraph, last sentence: He says that he believes that the ‘heterogenous’ (consisting of many different kinds of people) group he studied carried out ‘homogenous cultural practices’ (ones that are all of the same types). He is, therefore, saying that he can generalise about shopping because the people he studied all did the same things.

33. NO

Note 5th paragraph, 1st sentence: The writer says that his ideas are ‘at odds with’ (opposed to) ‘most of the literature on this topic’. His conclusions will therefore not agree with those of other research.

34. YES

Note 5th paragraph: ‘My premise … shopper’. The writer is saying that the basis of his theory is that people usually don’t do the shopping for their own benefit but for other reasons.


Note 5th paragraph, second half: The writer gives two purposes he believes shopping to have and analyses in both cases the motives of people when they are shopping. However, he does not say whether or not he thinks people analyse their own motives when they are shopping – the analysis is his.

36. NO

Note 5th paragraph, last sentence: The writer says That shopping ‘transcends any immediate utility’ (its aim is higher than simply the practical use of the things that are bought). He is saying that shopping is concerned with general values in life more than with the actual things people buy.

37. NO

Note Last paragraph, 1st sentence: The writer says that he never thought while he was carrying out his study that the subject of sacrifice would come into it. However, that subject did come into it later. His study was not an attempt to test the theories he now has; the theories, which include the area of ‘sacrifice’, developed after he had done the study. He, therefore, did not know before he started the study what theories would result from it.

38. thrift

Note The literature … chapter 3′. He says that he first thought that the research most closely connected with his own research in London was research on thrift (being careful with money).

39. Hubert and Mauss

Note The crucial element… my interpretation’. He says that work done by Bataille led him to the area of sacrifice, but that the work done by Hubert and Mauss is ‘the primary grounds for my interpretation’. His interpretation is mainly based on their work.

40. colloquial/metaphorical

Note He says that he uses the colloquial sense of the word ‘only rarely’, and that the metaphorical sense may be useful at some point, but it is ‘secondary’ {of less importance) in comparison with the sense of the word in connection with ‘structure’ (here he means in connection with ‘ancient’ or ‘traditional’ sacrifice’).


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